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Référence :

in Annali di scienze religiosi, Turnhout, (ASR,9), pp 271-294

The Fate of Others in 14th century Hanbalism

Abstract

In a recent publication entitled Ibn Taymiyya’s Theological Ethics, Sophia Vasalou tackles the moral objectivism that Ibn Taymiyya would reworked inspired to the unorthodox thought of Mu‘tazilite school. The importance of this comparison not only clarifies the relationship between these two actors of the Islamic Kalām, but points out that the neo-Hanbali reformist had to recognize a via media between Mu‘tazilite logical rationalism and Ash‘arite orthodoxy. In the last fifty years Ibn Taymiyya was perhaps one of the most analyzed Muslim theologians, but also one of the least understood because crushed by the ideological embrace of those who identified him as the main inspiration behind current Neo-Wahhabi ideology. This article delves into the eschatological vision of Ibn Taymiyyah and of his main student, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (d. 1350/750), emphasizing the attention, despite of what it might imagine, on the heterodox theory of Fanā’ an -Nār, the annihilation of Hell: there will be a time known only by God, where the hell will no longer exist because no longer inhabited. A survey that emphasizes not only the difficulty in exploiting the thought of Ibn Taymiyya, but also in making it conform to contemporary ideological interests.

Titre original : “The Fate of Others in 14th century Hanbalism”

Résumé

Dans une publication récente intitulée L’éthique théologique d’Ibn Taymiyya, Sophia Vasalou aborde l’objectivisme moral qu’Ibn Taymiyya allait repenser en s’inspirant de la pensée peu orthodoxe de l’école Mu’tazilite. L’importance de cette comparaison non seulement clarifie la relation entre ces deux acteurs du Kalām islamique, mais souligne que le réformateur néo-Hanbali a dû reconnaître une via media entre le rationalisme logique mu’tazilite et l’orthodoxie ash’arite. Au cours des cinquante dernières années, Ibn Taymiyya était peut-être l’un des théologiens musulmans les plus étudiés, mais aussi l’un des moins compris, écrasé par l’étreinte idéologique de ceux qui l’ont identifié comme la principale source d’inspiration de l’idéologie néo-wahhabite actuelle. Cet article explore la vision eschatologique d’Ibn Taymiyyah et de son principal disciple, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (m. 1350/750), qui prêta attention, malgré ce que l’on pourrait imaginer, à la théorie hétérodoxe de Fanā an-Nār, l’anéantissement de l’Enfer : “Il y aura un temps connu seulement par Dieu, où l’enfer n’existera plus parce qu’il n’est plus habité”. Une étude qui souligne non seulement la difficulté à exploiter la pensée d’Ibn Taymiyya, mais aussi à la rendre conforme aux intérêts idéologiques contemporains.

 Titolo originale : “The Fate of Others in 14th century Hanbalism”

In una recente pubblicazione dal titolo Ibn Taymiyya’s Theological Ethics, Sophia Vasalou affronta l’obbiettivismo morale che il teologo neo-Hanbalita avrebbe rielaborato ispirandosi al pensiero eterodosso della scuola Mu‘tazilita. L’importanza di questo confronto non solo chiarisce il legame esistente tra questi due protagonisti, ma sottolinea come il riformista in questione abbia dovuto riconoscere una via media tra il razionalismo Mu‘tazilita e l’ortodossia Ash‘arita. Negli ultimi cinquat’anni Ibn Taymiyya è stato forse uno dei teologi musulmani più analizzato, ma anche uno di quelli meno compresi, perché schiacciato dall’abbraccio ideologico di chi lo ha identificato come il principale ispiratore dell’odierna corrente Neo-Wahhabita. Questo articolo approfondisce la visione escatologica di Ibn Taymiyya e del suo principale allievo, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d. 1350/750), enfatizzando l’attenzione, a dispetto di quello che si potrebbe immaginare, all’eterodossa teoria del Fanā’ an-Nār, l’annientamento dell’inferno: ci sarà un tempo, conosciuto a Dio soltanto, nel quale l’inferno non esisterà più perché disabitato. Studio che enfatizza non soltanto la difficoltà nello strumentalizzare il pensiero di Ibn Taymiyya, ma anche nel renderlo conforme agli interessi ideologici contemporanei.

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