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Exclusively for Adherents of ‘Divinely Revealed’ Religions?

How did the preparatory work for the Egyptian constitutions discuss issues of freedom of religion and belief?

« The term “divinely revealed religions” is used in the constitution, laws, and some judicial rulings to restrict the religious freedoms of Egyptian citizens; specifically, those who do not adhere to Islam, Christianity, or Judaism, which are the only “divinely revealed religions” recognized in Egypt, according to the interpretations of the executive and judicial branches of government. Followers of these three religions enjoy certain religious rights and freedoms which are not afforded to adherents of any other belief. […]
This paper seeks to reconsider the preparatory work for the Egyptian constitutions of 1923, 2012, and 2014, which witnessed important debates about the limits of religious freedom in Egypt. The aim is to discuss the most prominent arguments used in judicial rulings in the context of lawsuits that demand raising the ceiling of religious freedoms in Egypt and guaranteeing some religious freedoms to those who do not follow the three “divinely revealed religions”. The paper also aims to identify the different orientations in discussions among elites, the different positions of these elites across the Egyptian political spectrum in relation to freedom of religion and belief, and how these positions were reflected during the preliminary deliberations of drafting constitutions. »

Comment le travail préparatoire des constitutions égyptiennes s’est confronté aux débats sur la liberté de religion et de conviction ?

“Le terme de « religions divinement révélées » est employé dans la constitution, les lois et la jurisprudence pour restreindre les libertés religieuses des citoyens égyptiens, et plus précisément ceux qui n’adhèrent pas à l’islam, au christianisme ou au judaïsme, qui sont les seules reconnues comme “divinement révélées” en Égypte. Les membres de ces trois religions jouissent de certains droits et libertés religieuses qui ne sont pas accordés aux autres convictions. En dépit de cela, les constitutions égyptiennes n’utilisaient pas cette notion de “religions divinement révélées” avant 2012, pas plus que le concept constitutionnel n’était associé à une limitation des libertés religieuses. […]

Cet article vise à reconsidérer les travaux préparatoires des constitutions égyptiennes de 1923, 2012 et 2014, qui ont suscité d’importants débats sur les limites de la liberté religieuse en Égypte. L’objectif est de discuter des principaux arguments utilisés dans les décisions judiciaires dans le cadre des procès qui demandent de relever le plafond des libertés religieuses en Égypte et de garantir certaines libertés religieuses à ceux qui n’appartiennent pas aux trois “religions divinement révélées”. L’article vise également à identifier les différentes orientations dans les discussions entre les élites, les différentes positions de ces élites à travers le spectre politique égyptien concernant la liberté de religion et de croyance, et comment ces positions ont été reflétées lors des délibérations préliminaires de la rédaction des constitutions.”

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