Pluriel

University platform for research on Islam

Initiated by
the Federation
of European
Catholic
Universities

Supported by
the International
Federation
of Catholic
Universities

Ressource

video | See all resources

German,

English,

Arabic,

Spanish,

French,

Italian

2021

The Question of Otherness in Classical Islam

Argument: How did Muslims represent the other? Here is a questioning overloaded with history, memory and narrative Islamic identity difficult to decode. Fourteen long centuries of conquests and defeats, inclusion and exclusion, tolerance and intolerance. Understanding the normative and sociological relationship of Islam to its medieval and contemporary otherness necessarily implies the interrogation of the immense theological and legal corpus of the classical age. In this context, the exploration not only of the text but also of the context is essential. For, from the birth of the last monotheistic religion in Arabia, through the expansion of the empire and the golden age oscillating between Baghdad and Cordoba, to the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, the perception of non-Islamic otherness went through several phases. However, the Arab-Muslim mechanism of memory transmission privileges first and foremost the collective consciousness of belonging to the Islamic community. This makes the interweaving of the normative corpus, the social realities and the modus vivendi of dealing with the other, as well as the imaginary representations of the latter, difficult to discern.

Lecture given in the framework of the webinar “Islam and Otherness – Focus Lebanon” held on 13 April 2021 in opening of the 3rd International Congress of the PLURIEL network.

Argument : Comment les musulmans se représentaient-ils l’autre? Voici un questionnement surchargé d’histoire, de mémoire et d’identité islamique narrative difficile à décoder. Quatorze longs siècles riches de conquêtes et de défaites, d’inclusion et d’exclusion, de tolérance et d’intolérance. Comprendre le rapport normatif et sociologique de l’islam vis-à-vis de ses altérités médiévales et contemporaines, implique nécessairement l’interrogation de l’immense corpus théologique et juridique à l’âge classique. Dans ce cadre, l’exploration non seulement du texte mais aussi du contexte s’impose. Car, depuis la naissance de la dernière religion monothéiste en Arabie, en passant par l’expansion de l’empire et l’âge d’or oscillant entre Bagdad et Cordoue, jusqu’à l’établissement de l’empire ottoman; la perception de l’altérité non islamique est passée par plusieurs phases. Or, le mécanisme arabo-musulman de la transmission mémorielle, privilégie en premier lieu la conscience collective de l’appartenance à la communauté islamique. Ceci, rend les imbrications entre le corpus normatif, les réalités sociales et le modus vivendi de la gestion de l’autre, ainsi que les représentations imaginaires de celui-ci difficiles à discerner.

Conférence donnée dans le cadre du webinaire “Islam et altérité – Focus Liban” qui s’est tenu le 13 avril 2021 en ouverture du 3è congrès international du réseau PLURIEL.

السؤال الجدلي: كيف كان يمثّل المسلمون الطرف الآخر؟ إليكم سؤال غنيّ بالتاريخ، والذاكرة والهوية السرديّة الإسلاميّة التي يصعب فكّ رموزها. أربعة عشر عامًا مليئة بالغزوات والهزائم، والإدماج والاستبعاد، والتسامح وعدم التسامح. إنّ فهم العلاقة المعياريّة والاجتماعيّة بين الإسلام والغيريّة في القرون الوسطى والغيريّة المعاصرة، يستلزم بشكل حتمي البحث في المدوّنة الدينيّة والقضائيّة في العصر الكلاسيكي. وفي هذا الإطار، يتوجّب علينا استكشاف كلّ من النصوص وسياقاتها أيضًا، ذلك أنّه، منذ نشأة الديانة الموحّدة الأخيرة في الجزيرة العربيّة، مرورًا بتوسّع الإمبراطوريّة والعصر الذهبي الذي تراوح بين بغداد وقرطبة، إلى حين نشأة الإمبراطورية العثمانيّة؛ مرّ مفهوم الغيريّة غير الإسلاميّة بمراحل عدّة. إلّا أنّ الآليّة العربيّة الإسلاميّة المتّبعة من أجل الانتقال في الذاكرة، تضع في المقام الأول الوعي الجماعي للانتماء إلى المجتمع الإسلامي، الأمر الذي يجعل من الصلات بين المدوّنة المعياريّة، والوقائع الاجتماعيّة والعمل معًا للتعامل الطرف الآخر، بالإضافة إلى التمثيل الخيالي لهذا الأخير، أمرًا يصعب تمييزه.

أُلقيت هذه المحاضرة في إطار الحلقة الدراسية الشبكية بعنوان الإسلام والغيريّة التي عُقدت في 13 نيسان/ أبريل 2021.

Resources related toReligious Pluralism

videos

Religious Pluralism in Post-“Arab Spring” Morocco

    Auteur(s) :

  • Youssef Boutahar

Title of the lecture : "Re-problematizing the Religious Majority-Minority Dialectics in Post-Arab Spring Morocco: Between Subalternity and Digital Disobedience" Given the debate currently prevai...

videos

Dār al-islām and dār al-ḥarb in contemporary Muslim thought

    Auteur(s) :

  • Farid Bouchiba

The purpose of the proposed paper is to question the division of the world into dār al-islām (land of Islam) and dār al-ḥarb (land of war), which is a classification introduced by Muslim jurisconsu...

videos

Education And Otherness: What are the Issues in a Context of Diversity?

    Auteur(s) :

  • Salim Daccache

In the era of the continuous call for the adoption of citizenship and living together (al Azhar declaration March 2017) and human brotherhood and common coexistence (Abu Dhabi document February 201...

videos

Islam and Christianity: mutual views and challenges of otherness

    Auteur(s) :

  • Michel Younès

In his book Soi-même comme un autre (Seuil 1990), the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005) builds his reflection on this 'as' which, according to him, allows us to escape from two harmful te...

videos

Muslim as ‘Other’ in former Yugoslavia

    Auteur(s) :

  • Cédomir Nestorovic

Balkan Islam, and in particular that of the former Yugoslavia, is plural because of its ethnic diversity. However, the collective perception does not see it that way, due to a double homogenisation...

publication

The legal status of non-Muslims in Algeria. The example of evangelicals and Ahmadis.

    Auteur(s) :

  • Zohra Aziadé Zemirli

This book, which focuses on the situation before 2019, provides keys to explaining the origins of the popular protest movement, the hirak. It shows how the State controls the society, which is pred...

videos

Islam and the Salvation of non- Muslims: The Qur’anic Perspective

    Auteur(s) :

  • Gabriel Said Reynolds

"At the Pluriel conference on “Islam and Otherness” I will argue the Qur’an’s emphasis on divine freedom provides an opening for inclusivism. The Qur’an emphasizes God’s mercy, using al-Raḥmān as a...

videos

The other in Islamic civilization: from the immanence of cultures to divine transcendence

    Auteur(s) :

  • Raja Sakrani

Lecture given at the 3rd International Congress of Pluriel on the theme "Islam and Otherness", on 24 May 2022, at Saint Joseph University in Beirut. Read abstract on the French tab.

article

Islamic Hermeneutics of Nonviolence: Key Concepts and Methodological Steps

    Auteur(s) :

  • Adnane Mokrani

The article traces the key concepts and methodological steps that make an Islamic theology of nonviolence plausible. It offers the tools for a critical reading of classical texts, “sacred” history,...

videos

Understanding freedom of religion around the Mediterranean

    Auteur(s) :

  • Alessandro Ferrari
  • Amin Elias

How to manage religious plurality? Three researchers from our network look back at the history of the northern, eastern and southern shores of the Mediterranean to understand the diversity of legal...