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Publisher : Profac-CECR 105 - Lyon
The growing interest in fatwâs and the different ways of regulating the overabundance of muftîs in Europe and in the world, in particular in the Arab world, has encouraged Islamologists to work on the internal evolution of Islam in the new context offered by Europe, based on the documents issued by the European Council for Fatwâ and Research. What kind of Islam emerges from these legal opinions, which are intended to guide Muslims in Europe?
Religious practice, questions about the family, the status of women, involvement in the political process, issues relating to the economy, finance or bioethics, or the way in which non-Muslims, particularly Christians, are viewed, are all aspects of burning relevance to the integration of Muslims in European societies.
But also, the presence of Muslims in Europe could have consequences on the reality of Islam as a whole, thanks to the ability to adapt from the foundations and purposes of the Law. If minority fiqh and/or minority Sharîa are not demographic but canonical concepts, will they be able to pave the way for a new approach to Law and Law, whatever the numerical situation in Europe or elsewhere?
L’effervescence autour des fatwâs et des différentes manières de réguler la surabondance des muftîs, en Europe et dans le monde, en particulier dans le monde arabe, a incité des islamologues à travailler sur les évolutions internes à l’islam dans le contexte nouveau que lui offre l’Europe, à partir des documents émis par le Conseil Européen de la Fatwâ et des Recherches. Quel islam émerge à partir de ces avis juridiques qui ont comme vocation d’orienter les musulmans en Europe ?
La pratique cultuelle, les interrogations sur la famille, la condition féminine, l’implication dans le processus politique, les problématiques relatives à l’économie, à la finance ou à la bioéthique, ou encore le regard porté sur les non-musulmans, notamment les chrétiens, autant d’aspects d’une brûlante actualité pour l’intégration des musulmans dans les sociétés européennes.
Mais aussi, la présence des musulmans en Europe pourrait avoir des conséquences sur la réalité de l’islam dans son ensemble, grâce à la capacité de s’adapter à partir des fondements et des finalités de la Loi. Si le fiqh des minorités et/ou la Sharîa de minorité ne sont pas des concepts démographiques, mais canoniques, seront-ils en mesure d’ouvrir la voie à une nouvelle approche de la Loi et du droit, quelle que soit la situation numérique en Europe ou ailleurs ?
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