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Religious Violence, Political Ends, Nationalism, Citizenship and Radicalizations in the Middle East and Europe

Since antiquity, religious violence based on political motives has been and remains a common practice: the atrocities committed by the Roman Empire against the first Christian communities were quickly replaced by acts no less aggressive against non-Christian believers, accused of polytheistic and unacceptable practices.

With the advent of modernity, the homogenization of the religious sphere for political and economic purposes, the annihilation of all forms of heresy and the spread of Protestantism, Calvinism and Anglicanism have led to a restructuring of the states of Western Europe under the motto “A kingdom, a religion, a nation”.

The end of the wars of religion (1648), the sovereignty of Westphalia and the principle cuius regio, eius religio influenced the formation of modern Europe and other regions, while Franco-British colonialism imposed the same system on the whole of the Middle-East and the Islamic world.

This volume is devoted to the study of interreligious violence, religious sectarianism and Islamophobia on a theoretical basis, combined with the “clash of civilizations” and “religious nationalism”, expressing specific policy objectives aimed at maintaining fragmentation and conflict in the East and fuelling fears and prejudices in the West.

Depuis l’Antiquité, la violence religieuse fondée sur des motifs politiques a été et reste une pratique courante : les atrocités commises par l’Empire romain à l’encontre des premières communautés chrétiennes ont rapidement été remplacées par des actes non moins agressifs à l’encontre de croyants non chrétiens, accusés de pratiques polythéistes et inacceptables.

Avec l’avènement de la modernité, l’homogénéisation de la sphère religieuse à des fins politiques et économiques, l’anéantissement de toutes les formes d’hérésie et la propagation du protestantisme, du calvinisme et de l’anglicanisme ont entraîné une restructuration des États d’Europe occidentale selon la devise “Un royaume, une religion, une nation”.

La fin des guerres de religion (1648), la souveraineté de Westphalie et le principe cuius regio, eius religio ont influencé la formation de l’Europe moderne et d’autres régions, tandis que le colonialisme franco-britannique a imposé le même système à l’ensemble du Moyen-Orient et du monde islamique.

Le présent volume est consacré à l’étude de la violence interreligieuse, du sectarisme religieux et de l’islamophobie sur une base théorique, combinés au “choc des civilisations” et au “nationalisme religieux”, exprimant des objectifs politiques précis visant à maintenir la fragmentation et les conflits belliqueux à l’Est et à attiser les craintes et les préjugés à l’Ouest.

Titre original : “Religious Violence, Political Ends”

منذ العصور القديمة، شكّلَ العنف الديني القائم على الدوافع السياسية ممارسة شائعة ولا يزالُ حتى يومنا هذا. فالفظائع التي ارتكبتها الإمبراطورية الرومانية ضد الجماعات المسيحية الأولى سرعان ما استُبدِلت بأفعال لا تقلّ عدوانيةً عنها طالت المؤمنين غير المسيحيين المُتّهمين بممارسات شركية وغير مقبولة.

مع حلول الحداثة، أدّى تجانسُ المجال الديني لغايات سياسيّة واقتصاديّة وإزالةُ أشكالِ الهرطقةِ كلّها وانتشارُ البروتستانيّة والكالفينية والأنجليكانية إلى إعادةِ هيكلية دول أوروبا الغربيّةِ تحت شعارِ “مملكة، دين، وأمّة”.

أثّرت نهاية الصراع الديني (1648) وسيادة وستفاليا وقيام مبدأ “الناس على دين ملوكهم” ( cuius regio, eius religio) في تشكيل أوروبا الحديثة ومناطق أخرى في وقتٍ فرضَ الاستعمارُ الفرنسي- البريطاني النظامَ نفسَه على الشرق الأوسط والعالم الإسلامي بأسرهما.

خُصِّص هذا العدد لدراسة العنف بين الأديان والطائفية الدينية ورُهاب الإسلام من الناحيةِ النظريّةِ، وقرنها بـ”صراع الحضارات” و “القومية الدينية”، بغية توضيحِ غاياتٍ سياسية محدّدة تهدف إلى الحفاظ على الانقسام والصراع في الشرق وتأجيجِ المخاوف والأحكام المسبقة في الغرب.

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