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Italian

2018

The right to religious freedom: a tool for managing citizen pluralism on both sides of the Mediterranean

Original title : “Il diritto di libertà religiosa: strumento di gestione del pluralismo cittadino sulle due rive del mediterraneo”

Lecture by Alessandro FERRARI at the second international Congress of PLURIEL in Rome.

The Muslim presence in Europe and a more visible pluralism on the southern shore of the Mediterranean give a new role to the right of religious freedom as an instrument of integration and management of contemporary plural societies. In particular, the tensions associated with the management of pluralism that seem to threaten traditional societal balances, both in the North and in the South, highlight the essential political nature of the right to religious freedom as an instrument in the hands of the states-for the protection of public order and their primacy.

The transformations of the contemporary right of religious freedom, which has become more functional to the collective-institutional framework than to the guarantee of individual bodies, reduce the distances between the two shores by allowing a comparison with their rights of religious freedom and their paths of citizen integration.

Titre original : “IL DIRITTO DI LIBERTÀ RELIGIOSA: STRUMENTO DI GESTIONE DEL PLURALISMO CITTADINO SULLE DUE RIVE DEL MEDITERRANEO”

Conférence d’Alessandro FERRARI lors du deuxième Congrès international de PLURIEL à Rome.

La présence musulmane en Europe et un pluralisme plus visible dans la rive Sud de la Méditerranéenne donnent un rôle nouveau au droit de liberté religieuse en tant qu’instrument d’intégration et de gestion des sociétés plurielles contemporaines. En particulier, les tensions liées à la gestion d’un pluralisme qui semble menacer les équilibres sociaux traditionnels, tant au Nord qu’au Sud, remettent en lumière la nature politique essentielle du droit à la liberté religieuse en tant qu’instrument dans les mains des états-nations pour la sauvegarde de l’ordre public et de leur primauté.

Les transformations du droit contemporain de liberté religieuse, devenu plus fonctionnel à l’encadrement collective-institutionnel qu’à la garantie des instances individuelles, réduisent les distances entre les deux rives en permettant un regard comparé aux leurs droits de liberté religieuse et aux leurs parcours d’intégration citoyenne.

Cette intervention traitera quatre points principaux :

1. Le rapport entre lutte pour la liberté religieuse et lutte pour une citoyenneté active dans les deux rives ;
= La revendication, au Nord comme au Sud, de la jouissance, sur un plan d’égalité, du même droit de liberté religieuse garanti aux groupes “plus établis” corresponde à une revendication de citoyenneté pleine. Par conséquent, le débat sur la liberté religieuse assume des contenus qui vont bien au-delà de sa dimension spécifique et traditionnelle.

2. Les dynamiques principales des droits de liberté religieuses dans les deux rives ;
= Dans la rive Nord la jouissance du droit de liberté religieuse par les musulmans devient l’occasion pour un processus d’ « ecclésiasticisation » des communautés musulmanes. Cela va amorcer un processus d’autonomisation destiné à produire ses effets aussi dans la rive Sud où les espaces juridiques nationaux, ainsi que les sphères publiques, sont de plus en plus sensibles au cadre globalisé.

3. Les transformations demandés aux musulmans en Europe et aux chrétiens dans la rive Sud pour participer activement à ce processus de “participation citoyenne” ;
= Au Nord les musulmans sont appelés à démontrer leur “loyauté” envers les acquis de la modernité politique pour accéder à une pleine citoyenneté publique. Au Sud les chrétiens sont appelés à accepter le pari de la sortie de leur privatisation autonomique pour jouer un rôle politique plein.

4. Le rôle joué par les dialogues intra-religieux, œcuménique et interreligieux dans ce processus ;
= Ces processus demandent un débat intra-religieux (entre différents groupes musulmans et chrétiens et entre leurs “laïcats” et “clergés”) ; œcuménique (au Nord le rôle des églises et des communautés chrétiennes pour la liberté religieuse des musulmans et au Sud en faveur des communautés religieuses non enregistrées) et inter-religieux (pour une liberté religieuses et une citoyenneté partagées et, donc, pour retrouver les intersections qui puissent faciliter la convergences des différents groupes religieux autour les piliers fondamentaux du “vivre ensemble”).

Conferenza di Alessandro FERRARI al secondo Congresso internazionale di PLURIEL a Roma.

La presenza musulmana in Europa e un pluralismo più visibile nella sponda meridionale del Mediterraneo conferiscono un nuovo ruolo al diritto di libertà religiosa in quanto strumento di integrazione e di gestione delle società pluralistiche contemporanee. In particolare, le tensioni legate alla gestione di un pluralismo che sembra minacciare gli equilibri sociali tradizionali, sia al Nord che al Sud, mettono in luce la natura politica essenziale del diritto di libertà religiosa in quanto strumento nelle mani degli Statinazioni per la salvaguardia dell’ordine pubblico e del loro primato.

Le trasformazioni del diritto contemporaneo di libertà religiosa, divenuto più funzionale all’inquadramento collettivo-istituzionale che alla garanzia delle istanze individuali, riducono le distanze tra le due sponde permettendo uno sguardo comparato ai loro diritti di libertà religiosa e ai loro percorsi di integrazione civica.

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