Pluriel

University platform for research on Islam

Initiated by
the Federation
of European
Catholic
Universities

Supported by
the International
Federation
of Catholic
Universities

English

2023

From Islamic Reference to Conservative Pragmatism – The Sinuous Paths of the Moroccan JDP Discourse

“The relationship between the political and religious fields in Morocco is generally based on tactical choices and pragmatic issues, often far from simple ideological orientations. In this context, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood ideology in Moroccan Islamic parties and movements is caught in a permanent political and intellectual debate that opposes two camps. The first camp thinks that Moroccan Islamism is home-grown, disconnected from the Muslim Brotherhood ideology. The second camp confirms that Islamic political parties and movements have always been under the influence of an imported Islamist ideology since their beginnings in the 1960s for some and the 1970s for others.

Paradoxically, Moroccan authorities are more inclined to allow a homegrown political Islam to an alien Islamist ideology, regardless of how similar they are. This ambiguity persists today in the Moroccan public space, which remains a showcase for good Islamic morality. Hence, the strategies of the Moroccan authorities toward the home-grown Moroccan Islamic-oriented political movements and parties have always been based on a combination of pragmatism and mistrust. Despite a strong attempt to control the scope of Islamic movements and to limit their aims and ambitions, the Moroccan authorities believe that the participation of these movements can help strengthen the basis and the legitimacy of the religious establishment in Morocco. On the other hand, the concerned movements believe that their participation in the political game, or at least their presence in the social field, would allow them to obtain long-term legal recognition and legitimacy.

In what follows, we will try to analyze the contradictions that structure the growing involvement of Islam in the political space. We focus more on the Justice and Development Party (JDP) as a place where these contradictions are concentrated. We will also discuss the branding of political Islam in Morocco, whether it is of Muslim Brotherhood, nationalist or Salafist origin. It would be wrong to claim exhaustive answers to these questions. However, Morocco’s political history displays a particularism (and not an exceptionalism) that we cannot ignore when analyzing the evolution of political Islam in this country.”

“La relation entre les domaines politique et religieux au Maroc est généralement basée sur des choix tactiques et des problèmes pragmatiques, souvent loin des simples orientations idéologiques. Dans ce contexte, l’influence de l’idéologie des Frères musulmans dans les partis et mouvements islamiques marocains est prise dans un débat politique et intellectuel permanent qui oppose deux camps. Le premier camp pense que l’islamisme marocain est indigène, déconnecté de l’idéologie des Frères musulmans. Le deuxième camp confirme que les partis politiques et mouvements islamiques ont toujours été sous l’influence d’une idéologie islamiste importée depuis leurs débuts dans les années 1960 pour certains et les années 1970 pour d’autres.

Paradoxalement, les autorités marocaines sont plus enclines à permettre un islam politique autochtone qu’une idéologie islamiste étrangère, peu importe leur similarité. Cette ambiguïté persiste aujourd’hui dans l’espace public marocain, qui reste une vitrine de la bonne moralité islamique. Ainsi, les stratégies des autorités marocaines à l’égard des mouvements politiques et des partis marocains orientés vers l’islam ont toujours été basées sur une combinaison de pragmatisme et de méfiance. Malgré une forte tentative de contrôler la portée des mouvements islamiques et de limiter leurs objectifs et ambitions, les autorités marocaines estiment que la participation de ces mouvements peut aider à renforcer les bases et la légitimité de l’établissement religieux au Maroc. D’un autre côté, les mouvements concernés estiment que leur participation au jeu politique, ou du moins leur présence dans le domaine social, leur permettrait d’obtenir une reconnaissance légale et une légitimité à long terme.

Nous essaierons d’analyser les contradictions qui structurent l’implication croissante de l’islam dans l’espace politique. Nous nous concentrons davantage sur le Parti de la Justice et du Développement (PJD) en tant que lieu où ces contradictions sont concentrées. Nous discuterons également de la marque de l’islam politique au Maroc, qu’elle soit d’origine Frères musulmans, nationaliste ou salafiste. Il serait erroné de prétendre apporter des réponses exhaustives à ces questions. Cependant, l’histoire politique du Maroc présente un particularisme (et non un exceptionnalisme) que nous ne pouvons ignorer lors de l’analyse de l’évolution de l’islam politique dans ce pays.”

العلاقة بين المجالين السياسي والديني في المغرب تعتمد عمومًا على الاختيارات التكتيكية والقضايا البراغماتية، وغالبًا ما تكون بعيدة عن التوجهات الأيديولوجية البسيطة. في هذا السياق، تتعرض تأثير الفكر الإخواني في الأحزاب والحركات الإسلامية المغربية لنقاش سياسي وفكري دائم يُعارضهما معسكران. يعتقد المعسكر الأول أن الإسلامية المغربية هي محلية وغير مرتبطة بفكر جماعة الإخوان المسلمين. بينما يؤكد المعسكر الثاني أن الأحزاب والحركات السياسية الإسلامية كانت دائمًا تحت تأثير فكر إسلامي مستورد منذ بداياتها في الستينيات لبعضها والسبعينيات للبعض الآخر.

على الرغم من ذلك، فإن السلطات المغربية أكثر ميلًا للسماح بوجود إسلام سياسي محلي بدلاً من الأيديولوجيا الإسلامية الأجنبية، بغض النظر عن مدى تشابههما. تستمر هذه الغموضة حتى اليوم في الفضاء العام المغربي، الذي لا يزال يعد معرضًا للأخلاق الإسلامية الجيدة. وبالتالي، فإن استراتيجيات السلطات المغربية تجاه الحركات والأحزاب السياسية المحلية الموجهة نحو الإسلام تعتمد دائمًا على مزيج من العملية والشك. وعلى الرغم من الجهود الكبيرة للسيطرة على نطاق الحركات الإسلامية وتقييد أهدافها وطموحاتها، تعتقد السلطات المغربية أن مشاركة هذه الحركات يمكن أن تساعد في تعزيز أساس وشرعية المؤسسة الدينية في المغرب. من ناحية أخرى، تعتقد الحركات المعنية أن مشاركتها في اللعبة السياسية، أو على الأقل وجودها في المجال الاجتماعي، سيتيح لها الحصول على الاعتراف القانوني والشرعي على المدى الطويل.

فيما يلي، سنحاول تحليل التناقضات التي تشكل المشاركة المتزايدة للإسلام في المجال السياسي. نركز بشكل أكبر على حزب العدالة والتنمية (JDP) كمكان يتم تركيز هذه التناقضات فيه. سنناقش أيضًا تسويق الإسلام السياسي في المغرب، سواء كان من أصل الإخوان المسلمين أو القومي أو السلفي. سيكون من الخطأ المطالبة بإجابات شاملة على هذه الأسئلة. ومع ذلك، تعرض تاريخ المغرب السياسي تميزًا (وليس استثنائية) لا يمكن تجاهله عند تحليل تطور الإسلام السياسي في هذا البلد.

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