Pluriel

University platform for research on Islam

Initiated by
the Federation
of European
Catholic
Universities

Supported by
the International
Federation
of Catholic
Universities

Publisher : L'Harmattan - Collection Colloques et rencontres - Paris

French

2021
212

Discourses and strategies of otherness: Crossed perspectives and analyses

Summary:

The interest of discourse analysis is to highlight the articulations of texts and social locations (Maingueneau, 2012). Questioning the functioning of these formations and the conditions of their production allows us to decipher the relationship to the world around us and its textual structuring. This perspective is the basis of the new status of writing, which never ceases to show and prove its universality in order to transform itself into a receptacle of the humanities, where the other assumes a place in the diversity of cultures. Seizing the figures of the other in the event of discourse inevitably raises the question of reality as a closed organising centre. At the heart of the transformation of this reality is the deconstructivist approach to which discourse analysis is intimately linked. The enterprise consists in dismantling “a founding immobility and a reassuring certainty (…) removed from the game” (Derrida, 1967).

If certain discursive productions thus contribute to awakening consciousness, or to illuminating realities hitherto kept in the dark, conversely, they also sometimes lead to the blurring of representations or to ideological manipulation. In this case, they contribute to the confinement of difference under the control of a closed and reductive dogmatic system; for example, a certain Orientalist discourse so well analysed by E. W. Said in his magnum opus of the same name.

Contributors to this book: Béatrice Blanchet, Maria-Laura Moreno-Sainz, Tristan Vigliano, Mouhamadoul Khaly Wélé, Laura Alba-Juez, Moreno Campetella, Véronique Magaud, Magdalena Brunel, Laurent Lagarde.

Résumé :

L’intérêt de l’analyse de discours est de mettre en évidence les articulations de textes et de lieux sociaux (Maingueneau, 2012). S’interroger sur les fonctionnements de ces formations et les conditions de leur production permet de décrypter le rapport au monde qui nous entoure et sa structuration textuelle. Cette perspective fonde le nouveau statut de l’écriture qui ne cesse de montrer et de prouver une universalité pour se transformer en un réceptacle des humanités, où l’autre s’assigne une place dans la diversité des cultures. Saisir les figures de l’autre dans l’événement du discours suscite immanquablement la question de la réalité en tant que centre organisateur fermé. Au cœur de la transformation de cette réalité est inscrite la démarche déconstructiviste à laquelle l’analyse de discours est intimement liée. L’entreprise consiste à démanteler « une immobilité fondatrice et une certitude rassurante (…) soustraite au jeu » (Derrida, 1967).

Si certaines productions discursives contribuent donc à réveiller les consciences, ou à éclairer des réalités jusque-là maintenues dans l’obscurité, à l’inverse, elles conduisent aussi, parfois, au brouillage des représentations ou à la manipulation idéologique. Dans ce cas, elles contribuent à enfermer la différence sous la coupe d’un système dogmatique clos et réducteur ; comme par exemple, un certain discours orientaliste si bien analysé par E. W. Saïd dans son opus magnum du même nom.

Ont contribué à cet ouvrage : Béatrice Blanchet, Maria-Laura Moreno-Sainz,Tristan Vigliano, Mouhamadoul Khaly Wélé, Laura Alba-Juez, Moreno Campetella, Véronique Magaud, Magdalena Brunel, Laurent Lagarde.

“يهدف تحليل الخطابات إلى تسليط الضّوء على الروابط بين النّصوص والمواقع الاجتماعيّة (Maingueneau, 2012). ويمكّننا البحث حول حسن سير هذه الدورات التدريبيّة وظروف إنتاجها من فك رموز علاقتها بالعالم الذي يحيط بنا وهيكليّتها النصيّة. ويُعدّ هذا المنظور أساس النظام الجديد للكتابة الذي يستمر بإظهار شموليّته وإثبات قدرته على التحوّل إلى وعاء للإنسانيّات، في حين يحدّد الآخر موقعًا له في التنوّع الثقافي. ومن المحتم أنّ فهم صورة الآخر من خلال الخطاب يثير مسألة الحقيقة باعتباره المحور التنظيمي المغلق. وينطوي تحوّل هذه الحقائق في صلبها على النهج غير البنّاء الذي يرتبط به التحليل بشكل وثيق. وتتمثّل المؤسّسة الاقتصاديّة في تفكيك “” الجمود المؤسّس والثقة الضامنة (…) التي لا تتضمنّها اللّعبة”” (Derrida, 1976).
بالتالي، إن كانت بعد الإنتاجات المنطقيّة تساهم في إيقاظ الضمائر، أو تسليط الضوء على الحقائق التي لا تزال غامضة حتى الآن، فإنّها تؤدّي من الجهة الأخرى في بعض الأحيان إلى تشويش التمثيلات أو إلى التلاعب الأيديولوجي. وفي هذه الحالة، تساهم في حصر الفارق بنظام عقائدي ومغلق ومُختزل؛ على سبيل المثال، تحليل أ. و. سعيد خطابًا مستشرقًا محدّدًا في أعظم إنجازاته الذي يحمل الاسم نفسه.

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