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French

2018

Controversy over the perception and status of the other (wala and bara)

Lecture by Emmanuel PISANI, during the Second International Congress of PLURIEL in Rome

The concepts of wala and bara [loyalty/friendship – disloyalty/enmity] have led to the development of a theological doctrine within contemporary Wahhabism that commands a particularist and exclusivist ethic towards the other. Originally developed within Ibadism, it underwent a Sunni formalisation under the pen of Ibn Taymiyya. In contemporary times, in the 1970s and in the context of one of the manifestations of reformism, this doctrine was updated in order to establish the primacy of solidarity based on belonging to the Muslim umma.

It has led to the rejection of any form of social, cultural, economic or political relations or collaborations with non-Muslims. Under the pen of al-Zawahiri[2], it gave rise to a political doctrine that led to the rejection of the notion of citizenship derived from Western modernity. It is now at the heart of Daesh’s political apparatus. However, a historical look shows that this doctrine had already given rise to a refutation by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal who saw in it an innovation (bi’a). The object of our communication will be to restore the theological foundations of the controversy.

A symptomatic question of the difficulty in Islam in thinking about pluralism, it will also be a question of exposing the arguments advanced by contemporary Muslim thinkers who, like Gamal al-Banna sees this doctrine as a scourge that drives generations of young people into anger and rejection of the non-Muslim.


[1]’Abd ar-Ra hman ’Abd al- Haliq, al-Wala al-Bara. Kuweit, 1978 ; Muhammad ibn Sa’id al-Qahtani, Min mafahim ’aqidat al-salaf al-salih. Al-Wala’ wa-l-bara’ fi l-islam. 6. Vol., Dar at-Taiyiba, La Mecque, 1413 ; Salih ibn Fawzan, al-Wala’ wa-l-bara’ fi l-islam, Gam ’iyat al-Kitab wa-l-sunna, Gaza, s.d.

[2]Al-Zawahiri, al-Wala’ wa-l-bara’. ’Aqida manqula wa-waqi’ mafqud.

[3]Gamal al-Banna, Na’am li-l-wala’ la li-l-bara’, al-Qahira, Dar al-Fikr al-Islami, 2007.

Original title : “Controverse sur la perception et le statut de l’autre (wala et bara)”

Conférence d’Emmanuel PISANI, lors du deuxième congrès international de PLURIEL à Rome

Les concepts de wala et de bara (loyauté/amitié – déloyauté/inimité) ont donné lieu à l’élaboration d’une doctrine théologique au sein du wahhabisme contemporain qui commande une éthique particulariste et exclusiviste à l’égard de l’autre[1]. Elaborée originellement au sein de l’ibadisme, elle a connu une formalisation sunnite sous la plume d’Ibn Taymiyya.

À l’époque contemporaine, dans les années 1970 et dans le contexte d’une des manifestations du réformisme, cette doctrine a été actualisée afin de fonder la primauté d’une solidarité basée sur l’appartenance à l’umma musulmane. Elle a conduit à justifier le rejet de toute forme de relations ou de collaborations sociales, culturelles, économiques ou politiques avec les non musulmans. Sous la plume d’al-Zawahiri[2], elle a donné naissance à une doctrine politique qui a conduit à rejeter la notion de citoyenneté issue de la modernité occidentale. Elle est aujourd’hui au cœur du dispositif politique de Daesh. Pourtant, un regard historique montre que cette doctrine avait déjà donné lieu à une réfutation par Ahmad Ibn Hanbal qui y voyait une innovation (bid’a).

L’objet de notre communication consistera à restituer les fondements théologiques de la controverse. Question symptomatique de la difficulté en islam à penser le pluralisme, il s’agira aussi d’exposer les arguments avancés par des penseurs musulmans contemporains qui, à l’instar de Gamal al-Banna, voient dans cette doctrine un fléau conduisant des générations de jeunes dans la colère et le rejet du non musulman[3].


[1]’Abd ar-Ra hman ’Abd al- Haliq, al-Wala al-Bara. Kuweit, 1978 ; Muhammad ibn Sa’id al-Qahtani, Min mafahim ’aqidat al-salaf al-salih. Al-Wala’ wa-l-bara’ fi l-islam. 6. Vol., Dar at-Taiyiba, La Mecque, 1413 ; Salih ibn Fawzan, al-Wala’ wa-l-bara’ fi l-islam, Gam ’iyat al-Kitab wa-l-sunna, Gaza, s.d.

[2]Al-Zawahiri, al-Wala’ wa-l-bara’. ’Aqida manqula wa-waqi’ mafqud.

[3]Gamal al-Banna, Na’am li-l-wala’ la li-l-bara’, al-Qahira, Dar al-Fikr al-Islami, 2007.

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