Pluriel

University platform for research on Islam

Initiated by
the Federation
of European
Catholic
Universities

Supported by
the International
Federation
of Catholic
Universities

Référence :

Religions 202112(11), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12110966

English

2021

Violence and Jihad in Islam: From the War of Words to the Clashes of Definitions

This article explores the phenomena of violence and jihad in three parts: their emergence and trajectory in the Qur’anic text, their meanings, and their entanglement with the religious cause. The objective was to examine the interactions between violence and jihad, highlighting the variations in their usage and interpretation. Based on intensive literal interpretations of the jihad verses, radical Islamist movements have distorted their historical memory by sanctifying and reducing them to an argument of war (harbqital) and combat, thus seeking a military solution to their political agendas. This article also aimed to address the issue of the transition of Islam from a meta-narrative of emancipation and rationality to one of violence by examining the question of war in Islam, as well as its definition and legitimisation. In this rather complex transition, we draw in some sections on Ibn Khaldun’s modelling to highlight the political component related to violence. The aim was to attempt to disentangle the threads of violence, politics, and power within the Islamic tradition. This study will allow assessment of the tension—in the context of the Qur’an—between order (islah) and disorder/injustice (fasad). The transition from one to the other implies a legitimisation of violence; its appropriateness must, therefore, be studied.

Cet article explore les phénomènes de la violence et du djihad en trois parties : leur émergence et leur trajectoire dans le texte coranique, leurs significations, et leur intrication avec la cause religieuse. L’objectif était d’examiner les interactions entre la violence et le djihad, en mettant en évidence les variations dans leur utilisation et leur interprétation. Sur la base d’interprétations littérales intensives des versets du djihad, les mouvements islamistes radicaux ont déformé leur mémoire historique en les sanctifiant et en les réduisant à un argument de guerre (harb, qital) et de combat, cherchant ainsi une solution militaire à leurs agendas politiques. Cet article visait également à aborder la question de la transition de l’islam d’un méta-récit d’émancipation et de rationalité à un récit de violence en examinant la question de la guerre en islam, ainsi que sa définition et sa légitimation. Dans cette transition assez complexe, nous nous appuyons sur certaines sections de la modélisation d’Ibn Khaldoun pour mettre en évidence la composante politique liée à la violence. L’objectif est de tenter de démêler les fils de la violence, de la politique et du pouvoir au sein de la tradition islamique. Cette étude permettra d’évaluer la tension – dans le contexte du Coran – entre l’ordre (islah) et le désordre/l’injustice (fasad). Le passage de l’un à l’autre implique une légitimation de la violence ; il convient donc d’en étudier l’opportunité.

يبحث هذا المقال في ظواهر العنف والجهاد في ثلاثة أجزاء: نشوؤهما ومسارهما في النصوص القرآنية، معانيهما وارتباطهما بالقضية الدينية. وقد تمثّل الهدفُ بالتمعنّ بالتفاعلات القائمة بين العنف والجهاد وتسليط الضوء على الاختلافات في استخدامهما وتفسيرهما. استندت الحركات الإسلامية المتطرّفة إلى تفسيرات حرفية مكثفة لآيات الجهاد، فشوهّت ذاكرتها التاريخية من خلال تقديسها وتحويلها إلى حجّة لشنّ الحروب وللقتال، ساعيةً بالتالي إلى اختلاقِ حلّ عسكري لأجنداتها السياسية. ويرمي هذا المقالُ أيضًا إلى معالجة مسألة انتقال الإسلام من السرد التأويلي للتحرير والعقلانية إلى سرد العنف من خلال تفحصّ مسألة الحرب فيه وتعريفها وشرعيتها. في هذا الانتقال المعقّد نوعًا ما، نستندُ إلى بعض الأقسام المقتبسة من نموذج ابن خلدون كي نسلّط الضوء على المكوّن السياسي المتعلق بالعنف. وتمثّلت الغايةُ من ذلك في محاولة فصل العنف عن السياسة والسلطة في التقاليد الإسلامية. وستسمح هذه الدراسة بتقييم التوتّر – في سياق القرآن – القائم بين النظام (الإصلاح) والفوضى / الظلم (الفساد). فالانتقال من عنصرٍ إلى آخر يعني إضفاء طابع الشرعية على العنف ؛ من هنا يُفترض بالتالي دراسة مدى ملاءمته.

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